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Elijah Spencer Miller

A Short History of Pickens County, Indian Territory - Present day Carter County, Oklahoma

Indian Territory BUSINESS GUIDE:
FOR THE HOMESEEKER AND INVESTOR: PUBLISHED BV WESTERN PUBLISHING CO. POTEAU, INDIAN TERRITORY:

Springer lies twelve miles north of Ardmore near the foot of the famous Arbuckle Mountains on that
beautiful stream Caddo. This is one of the best farming countries in the Chickasaw Nation. It is well
watered, plenty of wood, pasturage and everything to make life worth the while. Springer has a population
of about four hundred people and is one of the healthiest places to be found anywhere. We have two
first-class general merchandise stores, a first-class drug store, nice restaurant, confectionery, blacksmith shops,
gins, and other business incidental to a good town. We have a good school building in which school is in
session nine months out of the year. The Woodmen of the World and Methodist church have lumber on the ground to erect new buildings for their work.

We are six miles west of Berwyn on the G. F. & S. F. Railroad. We are on the motor road that is contemplated being built from Ardmore to the noted health resort. Turner Falls. When this road is completed it will give us cheap and efficient transportation to outside points. One of the most picturesque sceneries in the Indian Territory are the Arbuckle Mountains, they are also full of different kinds of minerals which are being developed. Great crops of cotTon, corn and oats are raised here every year. We
never have a failure. If you are looking for good country to make your home don't pass Springer up, for she is the garden spot of the Chickasaw Nation.

J. H. Brasher, Postmaster.

"Indian Territory business guide for the homeseeker and investor"

Oklahoma has had individual land ownership for a little over a century. It began in 1902 in the Indian Territory with the allotment of lands by the Dawes Commission. Prior to that time, land in the Indian Territory was communal property, and belonged to the respective Indian nation in which an individual lived. In Oklahoma Territory, with the exception of Indian allotments by the Jerome Commission in the late 1880s, ownership began in 1889, and spread with each of the land openings. The last land opening in Oklahoma Territory, with the minor exception of the salt plains in Alfalfa County, was in 1906. Land ownership in the Panhandle was possible after the first official survey was done for the area in the 1890s.

Oklahoma statehood occurred November 16, 1907, by joining Oklahoma Territory and the Indian Territory. The newest county in Oklahoma was formed in 1912.
Counties formed from Indian Territory
Adair, Atoka, Bryan, Carter, Cherokee, Choctaw, Coal, Craig, Creek, Delaware, Garvin, Haskell, Hughes, Johnston, Latimer, LeFlore, Love, Marshall, Mayes, McClain, McCurtain, McIntosh, Murray, Muskogee, Nowata, Okfuskee, Okmulgee, Ottawa, Pittsburg, Pontotoc, Pushmataha, Rogers, Seminole, Sequoyah, Tulsa, Wagoner, Washington
Counties formed from Oklahoma Territory
Alfalfa, Beckham, Blaine, Caddo, Canadian, Cleveland, Comanche, Cotton, Custer, Dewey, Ellis, Garfield, Grant, Greer, Harmon, Harper, Jackson, Kay, Kingfisher, Kiowa, Lincoln, Logan, Major, Noble, Oklahoma, Osage, Pawnee, Payne, Pottawatomie, Roger Mills, Washita, Woods, Woodward
Counties formed from both territories (mostly the Indian Territory)
Grady, Jefferson, Stephens

PICKENS DISTRICT OR COUNTY WAS DESCRIBED AS FOLLOWS:

Commencing on the north bank of the Red River, at the mouth of the Washita River, Thence up the Red River to the 98th Meridian Line, thence north along said line to where it crosses the Washita River, thence down the Washita to the beginning point.

The 98th Meridian generally follows a line about 5 miles west of US Highway 81.

Pickens County was made up of all or part of the following counties of Oklahoma:

Murray Marshall Carter Stephens Grady Love Garvin Jefferson Johnston

The following populated places existed in Pickens County according to the 1895 Atlas:

Addington
Alex
Ardmore - Seat of Carter county, named by Santa Fe RR construction crew in 1880's for a town in PA.
Arthur
Atlee
Bailey
Beef Creek - Original name of Maysville in Garvin County, located on & taking it's name from Beef Creek.
Berwyn - Original name of Gene Autry in Carter county, N.E. of Ardmore, named by RR after town in PA.
Bradley
Brady
Brownsville
Burneyville
Burt
Cheek
Chickasha - Seat of Grady County, from Indian word for "rebel".
Cliff
Comanche
Cornish
Courtney
Dixie
Duncan
Durwood
Earl
Eastman
Elk
Elmore City
Erin Springs
Fleetwood
Foster
Fred
Grady
Graham
Healdton
Hennepin
Hewitt
Holde r
Homer
Hope
Jimtown
Keith
Keller
Keltner
Lark
Willis
Lebanon
Leon
Linn
Loco
Lone Grove
Mannsville
Marietta
Marlow
McMillan
Newport
Ninnekah
Oakland
Orr
Overbrook
Pauls Valley - Seat of Garvin County, named after Smith Paul early pioneer of Pickens County.
Pearl
Perry
Petersburg
Pike
Purdy
Raysville
Reck
Robberson
Rush Springs
Ryan
Simon
Springer
Sugden
Terral
Thackerville
Tucker
Tussey
Wall ville
Whitebead - AKA White Bead Hill, named after a Caddo Indian woman trading with Indian tribes in area.
Wilson
Woodford
Woodville
Woolsey
Velma

Notable Geographical Features of Pickens County:

Rush Creek: Flows W to E from Rush Springs to Washita River at Pauls Valley.

Wild Horse Creek: Flows W to E from north of Marlow to Washita River north of Davis.

Stinki ng Creek: Flows N to S from east of Duncan to Mud Creek south of Atlee.

Mud Creek: Flows SE from Addington to Red River near Courtney.

Walnut Bayou: Flows N to S from W of Graham to Red River SE of Burneyville.

Little Washita: Flows W to E from Keeche Hill N of Ft Sill to Washita River E of Fred.

Arbuckle Mountains: Generally in Murray County, foothills in surrounding counties.

Table Hills: South of Rush Creek to north of Foster.
Panhandle counties
Beaver, Cimmaron, and Texas.

The record books of the thirty judicial Recording Districts, the transitional form of government in the Indian Territory just prior to statehood, were not as a general practice preserved by the newly formed state counties. Consequently, the earliest land records in those counties start in November 1907.

In the Oklahoma Territory region, including the Panhandle, several large counties were divided into smaller counties. This may affect the location of county land records.

Linked toHarriet Curbow (Moved); Elijah Spencer Miller (Moved)

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